What is the relation between patents and jurisdictions?

Patents are granted by the state.


Each government appoints a patent office who is in charge of managing intellectual property. The patent office employs examiners, who are in charge of examining patent applications, trademark applications and other applications relating to IP. The examiners examine the applications in accordance with the laws of the state, and also in accordance with guidelines issued by the patent office for determining the examination procedures.


The patent law defines the characterization of a patent, the rights and obligations related to it, the restriction on the inventors and patent holders, explanation of patent violation and more. Among others, in patent law the requirements of a patent application are characterized and the examination is defined.


Patent laws of the various countries differ from each other, although several basic concepts are common to most of the laws. For example, there are countries that require translation to an official language (such as China, Japan, Russia etc.) and there are countries where this requirement does not exist (in Israel, for example, a patent application can be filed in English). The patent law is the law that gives authority to the patent office.


Furthermore, the patent law defines the requirements from an invention, in order to make it eligible for a patent. In accordance with most of the patent laws, an invention must be novel and inventive in order for a patent to be granted on it. In addition, the patent law normally defines additional matters relating to inventions and patents, such as the rights and obligations of a patent holder.