What are the procedures to be taken in response to an Office Action (OA) in the US?

 

When an OA issues, there are normally 3 months to respond. Afterwards, in most cases, time can be further extended by 3 months, in 1 month terms.

The 1st month is "less expensive", the second month's extension is of higher cost, and the 3rd month extension is expensive. The reason for the progressive cost is progressive fees at the Patent Office.
It is important to remember that sometimes the Patent Office determines a different due date for response.
In the response, the Applicant is expected to cope with the Examiners' objections raised in the OA.

It is possible to amend claims, and/or provide arguments.